Indonesia Biodiversity Overview
Indonesia, a country that has prodigious biodiversity, is a combination of biodiversity as well as Asia and Australia (Australasia) and the meeting zone of the two continents.
Land area of Indonesia totalled 1,919,440 km and an area of the waters of the 3,257,483 km with a coastline along the 99,093 km (BIG 2013). Geologically, Indonesia crossed by two young mountain trails of the world, namely the Mediterranean mountain range to the West and the mountains of the Pacific Sirkum in the East. The confluence of two mountain trails cause many active volcanoes in Indonesia and named as The Pacific Ring of Fire. It is also lead Indonesia into a region prone to earthquakes.
The distribution of bioregions in Indonesia is based on the bio geography of flora and fauna implied by the Wallace line (Wallace 1860 and 1910), the Webern line (Weber 1904), and the Lydekker line (1896). Initially, the Wallace line separated the Asian Fauna geo-zones (zoogeography)- (Sunda Exposure) and Australasia. Alfred Russell Wallace realized the distinction between Borneo fauna grouping and between Sulawesi and Lombok Balidan.
Then, this line was confirmed by Antonio Pigafetta’s theory, so that the Wallace line was shifted eastward to the Weber line (Weber 1902). Lydekker’s line is a line drawn on biogeography limits exposure to Sahul (Australia-New Guinea) which is located on the eastern part of Indonesia (Hugh 1992).
This bioregion Division reinforced by current research results (Berg and Dasmann 1977; Duffels 1990; Maryanto and Higashi 2011).
Based on the research results above, biogeografis-Indonesia set to 7 (seven) bioregion, namely (i) (ii) of Sumatra, Java and Bali, Borneo, (iii) (iv) (v) of Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands (Lesser Sunda Island), (vi) Maluku, and (vii) Papua. Bioregion in Papua has a vast landscape and the wealth of the diversity of types of biodiversity and high endemism which affects the functioning of the ecosystem.
Indonesia’s ecosystem diversity consists of natural ecosystems and artificial ecosystems. A natural ecosystem is an ecosystem that is naturally formed without human intervention. Meanwhile, an artificial ecosystem is formed through human intervention. Ecosystem diversity is systematically simple, so that it is easy for communities to understand various complex ecosystem types in Indonesia that are interrelated and interdependent (Kartawinata, 2013).
Ecosystem diversity in Indonesia is divided into 19 natural ecosystem types that are spread out in various areas from Sumatra to Papua. Those 19 ecosystem types are divided into 74 vegetation types spread across nearly all bioregions in the country (Kartawinata, 2013). Such variation shows that each ecosystem is rich in flora and fauna species. However, not all general information on vegetation in Indonesia has been fully identified.
Species diversity is the diversity of organisms occupying an ecosystem, on land as well as in the water. As such, organisms have different characteristics to one another. For example, there are six species of turtle in Indonesia, namely green sea turtle (Cheloniamydas), hawksbill turtle (Eretmochelysimbricata), olive ridley sea turtle (Lepidochelysolivacea), flatback sea turtle (Natatordepressus), leatherback sea turtle (Dermochelyscariacea) and loggerhead sea turtle (Carettacaretta), which all have different physical characteristics (phenology).
Species diversity is not only measured by the amount of species in a certain area but also by taxon diversity (taxonomy group, namely class, antion, genus, group and family).Biodiversity is based on species grouped into two parts, namely: (i) biodiversity that lives in sea and shore ecosystems (sea biota) and (ii) biodiversity that lives in terrestrial ecosystems (terrestrial biota).
Genetic diversity is the diversity of individuals in a species. This diversity is caused by interindividual genetic differences. Genes are the characteristic carrier factors of each organism and may be inherited from one generation to another. As such, the individual in a species carries the gene structure that is different from the gen structure of other individuals. For example, this is shown in the diverse paddy varieties (such as Rojolele, Menthik and Cianjur) or mango varieties (golek, harummanis and manalagi).
Genetic diversity currently supports the agricultural and medicine industries, which until now have produced various medicines and plant varieties, from sugarcane to fruits, potatoes, rice, corn and cattle. As such, genetic diversity can become part of the health resources and food security of countries, including Indonesia. The loss of genetic resources will threaten human life and the lives of
Endemic Flora dan Fauna
The geological and ecosystem uniqueness of Indonesia causes highendemism of fauna, flora and microbes. Indonesia has very high fauna species endemism, and even has the highest endemism in the world for several groups such as Aves, mammals and reptiles.
Endemic fauna in Indonesia totals 270 mammal species, 386 Aves species, 328 reptile species, 204 amphibian species and 280 fish species. Each group of taxon on each island in Indonesia shows different endemism levels.
The flora endemism level in Indonesia is recorded between 40 percent and 50 percent of the total flora species on each island, except Sumatra, where endemism is estimated at only 23 percent.The results of small mammal biography analysis show that small islands apparently have very high endemism levels, as seen on Flores Island, Enggano Island, Mentawai Island and others (Maryanto and Higashi, 2011).
Threat of Endemic Biodiversity Extinction in Indonesia
The largest threat in biodiversity extinction, particularly endemic examples, is due to the loss of biodiversity habitats. Loss of habitat is mainly caused by:
- Habitat damage, either due to natural disasters, forest fires, environmental pollution or climate change, causing damage to a biodiversity habitat;
- Loss of habitat due to the use of biodiversity forest/habitat for agricultural land, mining, industry or settlement. An increasing population, which is not followed by tight controls on spatial layout, causes the continuous clearing of forest and biodiversity habitats, resulting in the loss of living places or killing due to being considered as disturbance;
- The killing of flora/fauna due to their content, where value is driven by irresponsible trade.