Indonesian Biodiversity

Indonesia Biodiversity Overview

Indonesia, a country that has prodigious biodiversity, is a combination of biodiversity as well as Asia and Australia (Australasia) and the meeting zone of the two continents.

Land area of Indonesia totalled 1,919,440 km and an area of the waters of the 3,257,483 km with a coastline along the 99,093 km (BIG 2013). Geologically, Indonesia crossed by two young mountain trails of the world, namely the Mediterranean mountain range to the West and the mountains of the Pacific Sirkum in the East. The confluence of two mountain trails cause many active volcanoes in Indonesia and named as The Pacific Ring of Fire. It is also lead Indonesia into a region prone to earthquakes.

The distribution of bioregions in Indonesia is based on the bio geography of flora and fauna implied by the Wallace line (Wallace 1860 and 1910), the Webern line (Weber 1904), and the Lydekker line (1896). Initially, the Wallace line separated the Asian Fauna geo-zones (zoogeography)- (Sunda Exposure) and Australasia. Alfred Russell Wallace realized the distinction between Borneo fauna grouping and between Sulawesi and Lombok Balidan.

Then, this line was confirmed by Antonio Pigafetta’s theory, so that the Wallace line was shifted eastward to the Weber line (Weber 1902). Lydekker’s line is a line drawn on biogeography limits exposure to Sahul (Australia-New Guinea) which is located on the eastern part of Indonesia (Hugh 1992).

This bioregion Division reinforced by current research results (Berg and Dasmann 1977; Duffels 1990; Maryanto and Higashi 2011).

Based on the research results above, biogeografis-Indonesia set to 7 (seven) bioregion, namely (i) (ii) of Sumatra, Java and Bali, Borneo, (iii) (iv) (v) of Sulawesi, Lesser Sunda Islands (Lesser Sunda Island), (vi) Maluku, and (vii) Papua. Bioregion in Papua has a vast landscape and the wealth of the diversity of types of biodiversity and high endemism which affects the functioning of the ecosystem.

Sumber : Indonesian Biodiversity Strategy Action Plan 2015-2020

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